Wednesday, 25 September 2013

Present Simple Tense

English Lessons: 20 QUESTIONS ABOUT YOU

Present Tense
Past Tense
walk to school
walked to school.
shall walk to school.
Sahib runs fast.
Sahib ran fast.
Sahib will run fast.
The children play football.
The children played football.
The children will play football.

The children play football.
The children played football.
The children will play football.

I walk
मैं चलता हूँ
I walked
मैं चलता था
I will walk
मैं चलूंगा

       She cuts the vegetable.
The baby sleeps.
Raju runs quickly.
This is a very sweet mango.
Sahib reads quite clearly.

Lesson 5: Hindi Verbs - Part 2.
We continue with some other tenses in Hindi:

Present Continuous Tense:
Verb Stem + रहा / रहे / रही (raha/rahe/rahi) + Present Tense of "Hona" (to be)
For those who don't like grammatical terms and don't know for sure what's "continuous tense", I'll tell that it's the same as the English verbs, ending in "-ing". So if you want to say that you "read" a book in the moment of speaking, you have to say "I am reading a book", not simply "I read a book", because the last could mean that you read a book in general, i.e. you're not reading it in the moment of speaking. So let's clear all that out with some examples.
मैं किताब पढ रहा हुं. (mai~ kitab padh raha hu~) = I'm reading a book. मैं पानी पी रहा हुं. (mai~ pani pi raha hu~) = I'm drinking water. मैं रोटी खा रही हुं. (mai~ roti kha rahi hu~) = I'm eating bread. (a girl speaking!)
The verbs stem and raha/rahe/rahi are pronounced almost as one (at once), although they're written separately. Sometimes in colloquial speech all is even shortened more. The "raha hu~" for example is pronounced "rahu~", "raha hai" as "rahai", "raha hai~" -> "rahai~"...

Past Tense:
Building past is easy. Just take the root of a verb and add -a, -e, or -i, respectively for Masculine Singular, Masculine Plurar and Feminine both - Singular and Plurar:
Verb Stem + ा/े/ी (-A/-E/-I) = Past Tense
NB! For verbs, whose stem end in a vowel you have to add या/ये/यी (ya/ye/yi) E.g. खाना -> खा -> खाया(Khana -> Kha (stem) -> Khaya)
Some examples:
मैं खाया. (mai~ khaya) = I ate.
मैं पढा. (mai~ padha) = I read.
लडका खाया. (larka khaya) = The boy ate.
लडकी खायी. (larki khayi) = The girl ate.
आप पीया. (aap piya) = You ate. (Sg. polite or Plural)
मैं पानी पीया. (mai~ pani piya) = I drank water.
तुम पानी पीये. (tum pani piye) = You drank water.
Some Verbs are irregular. I'll show you some of them (A little below you'll see the past of 'to be', which is needed to build the imperfect past tense, necessary to be able to say such phrases as "I've used to go ..."):
Past of जान (Janaa = to go)
गाया / गाये / गायी / गायीं (gaya / gaye / gayi / gayi~) (1: Masc. Sg, 2: Masc. Pl. 3: Fem. Sg, 4: Fem. Pl.)
To build the past imperfect tense, we have first to learn the past tense of the "main" hindi verb: "to be" (Hona). Past of "hona" is even simplier than the present form:
Past of होना (Honaa = To be)
था (tha) = was (for Masculine SINGULAR) थे (the) = were (for Masculine PLURAL)
थी (thi) = was (for Feminine SINGULAR) थीं (thi~) = was (for Feminine PLURAL)
मैं वहां था. (mai~ vaha~ tha.) = I was there. आप यहां थे. (aap yaha~ the) = You (polite) was here. OR You were here. (वहां /vaha~/ = there, यहां /yaha~/ = here, जहां /jaha~/ = where) Now as you know here/there/where (btw, there exists also another word for where = kaha~) I'll give you a Hindi proverb:
जहां धुआं है, वहां आग भी है. (jahan dhua~ hai, vaha~ aag bhi hai) = Where there is a smoke, there is a fire too.

Past Imperfect Tense:
... Verb Stem + ता / ते / ती (TA/TE/TI) + Past Tense of "Hona" (to be) = Past Imperfect Tense Stem + ता/ते/ती + टा/टे/टी/टीं = Past Imperfect Tense The past imperfect tense is used to tell about habitual actions in the past. In English it's best translated with the pattern "used to + verb":
मैं खाता था. (mai~ khata tha) = I used to eat. लडका खाता था. (larka khata tha) = The boy used to eat. लडकी खाती थी. (larki khati thi) = The girl used to eat. आप पीते थे. (aap pite the) = You used to drink. (Sg. polite or Plural) मैं पानी पीता था. (mai~ pani pita tha) = I used to drink water. तुम पानी पीते थे. (tum pani pite the) = You used to drink water.
Next comes of course the past continous tense:

Past Continuous Tense:
Well, no need to help you much here. It's the same as the present continous except that it's used the past tense of Hona:
Verb Stem + रहा / रहे / रही (raha/rahe/rahi) + Past Tense of "Hona" (to be) = Past Continuous Tense
मैं किताब पढ रहा था. (mai~ kitab padh raha tha) = I was reading a book. मैं पानी पी रहा था. (mai~ pani pi raha tha) = I was drinking water. मैं रोटी खा रही थी. (mai~ roti kha rahi thi) = I was eating bread. (a girl speaking!)
I think you got it, now for the FUTURE:

Future Tense:
The Future tense it a bit more complicated than the past for it has more verb-endings for person than those by the past tense.
Future Imperfect Tense:
Let us conjugate a verb in the future tense, then I'll give the endings:
Future Imperfect of "Pina" (पीना = to drink)
मैं पीउंगा (mai~ piunga) = I will drink तु पीएगा (tu piega) = You will drink तुम पीओगे (tum pioge) = You will drink वह पीएगा (voh piega) = He/She/It will drink.
हम पीएंगे (ham pienge) = We will drink आप पीएंगे (aap pienge) = You will drink. वे पीएंगे (ve pienge) = They will drink.
For "I" use -unga, for "Tu" use "ega", for "Tum" use "oge", for "voh" use "ega" and for "ham/aap/ve" the plural form "enge".

Future Continuous Tense:
To build that tense use these endings: रहूंगा रहेगा रहेंगे रहोगे (rahunga/rahega/rahenge/rahoge) similarly as the forms for Future Imperfect together with the "conjugated" verb.
Verb Stem + TA / TE / TI + rahunga/rahega/rahenge/rahoge = Future Continuous Tense
Let's make the future continuous of the verb "pina" to make things clear:
Future Continuous of "Pina" (पीना = to drink)
मैं पीता रहुंगा. (mai~ pita rahunga) = I will be drinking. तु पीता रहेगा. (tu pita rahega) = You will be drinking. तुम पीते रहोगे. (tum pite rahoge) = You will be drinking. वह पीता रहेगा. (voh pita rahega) = He/She/It will be drinking.
हम पीते रहेंगे. (ham pite rahenge) = We will be drinking. आप पीते रहेंगे. (aap pite rahenge) = You will be drinking. वे पीते रहेंगे. (ve pite rahenge) = They will be drinking.
So, now you have everything you have to know about verbs except if I've missed something. That was a long and a hard lesson so have a rest before you go to the next lesson :)

English tenses

English tenses - Complex Test 1
Exercises - English tenses

TenseSignal wordsUseFormExamples
Present Simple
every day







first ... then
something happens repeatedly

how often something happens

one action follows another

things in general

after the following verbs (to love, to hate, to think, etc.)

future meaning: timetables, programmes
infinitive he/she/it + -s work don't work.Do I work?
He works. He doesn'twork. Does hework?
go.don't go. Do I go?
He goes. He doesn't go. Does he go?
Progressive or
Present Continuous

at the moment


something is happening at the same time of speaking or around it

future meaning: when you have already decided and arranged to do it (a fixed plan, date)
to be (am/are/is) +infinitive + -ing I'm working.I'm not working.Am Iworking?
He's working. He isn'tworking. Is heworking?
I'm going. I'm not going. Am I going?
He's going. He isn't going. Is he going?
last ...

... ago

in 1990

action took place in the past, mostly connected with an expression of time (no connection to the present)regular:
infinitive + -edirregular:
2nd column of table of irregular verbs
worked.didn't work.Did I work?
He worked.He didn't work. Did he work?
went.didn't go. Did I go?
He went.He didn't go. Did he go?
Progressive or
Past Continuous
whilean action happened in the middle of another action

someone was doing sth. at a certain time (in the past) - you do not know whether it was finished or not
was/were +infinitive + -ing was working.wasn'tworking.Was Iworking?
He wasworking. He wasn'tworking. Was heworking?
was going. wasn't going. Was I going?
He was going. He wasn'tgoing. Was hegoing?





so far,

up to now,



you say that sth. has happened or is finished in the past and i

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